Born: Aug. 8, 1952
Fifth Egyptian president (June 30, 2012 – July 3, 2013)
Mohamed Morsi was elected as Egypt’s first post-revolution president and served just over a year, from June 30, 2012 to July 3, 2013. He was removed from his position by the army on July 3, 2013 following popular protests.
He was the first civilian and the first Islamist to fill the role since the 1952 revolution.
Following his ouster he was detained pending an investigation into his escape from prison during Egypt’s January 25 Revolution. Morsi and other Brotherhood leaders were arrested on January 28, 2011 and then broken out of prison with the help of unknown persons on Jan. 30.
An American-educated engineering professor, Morsi became chairman of the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Freedom and Justice Party following its establishment in 2011. He was chosen as the party’s presidential candidate in April 2012.
In the 2012 presidential elections, Morsi narrowly beat competitor Ahmed Shafiq with 51% of the vote in a highly polarized run-off.
During his campaign, Morsi presented himself as a moderate Islamic candidate and promised to head a government “for all Egyptians.” Once elected he was seen as failing to follow through on any of his promises, and was blamed for the state of the economy and devaluation of the Egyptian pound.
Public opposition galvanized against Morsi on Nov. 22, 2012 when he announced a constitutional declaration granting him sweeping powers and immunization from legal challenges.
Public anger escalated when a draft of the constitution was rushed through the approval process. Clashes erupted in several cities between anti and pro-Morsi supporters, the most infamous leaving five dead and 1,000 injured outside the presidential palace on Dec. 5, 2012.
In April 2013, grassroots movement Tamarod began collecting signatures for a petition demanding new presidential elections. An estimated 10-30 million protesters took to the streets across Egypt on June 30, 2013, marking the one-year anniversary of Morsi’s presidency by demanding he step down.
On July 1, the military gave both sides 48 hours to reconcile. On July 2, Morsi spoke for hours on air refusing the ultimatum. On July 3, the military announced that Morsi had been removed from his position and Adly Mansour appointed as interim president.
On Nov. 4 Morsi attended his first hearing related to charges of inciting violence and murder. He was then transferred to Borg Al-Arab Prison outside of Alexandria.
In December the prosecutor ordered Morsi, alongside 35 other Muslim Brotherhood members, to stand trial for allegedly conspiring with foreign groups, including Hamas and Hezbollah, against the Egyptian state. This was the third case brought against Morsi since his ouster, all of which hold the possibility of the death penalty.
Before his presidential bid, Morsi served in the Guidance Bureau of the Muslim Brotherhood and was an independent MP from 2000-2005.